Proxy Voting Policies

American Century Investment Management, Inc. (the "Advisor") is the investment manager for a variety of advisory clients, including the American Century Investments® family of funds. In such capacity, the Advisor has been delegated the authority to vote proxies with respect to investments held in the accounts it manages. The following is a statement of the proxy voting policies that have been adopted by the Advisor. In the exercise of proxy voting authority which has been delegated to it by particular clients, the Advisor will apply the following policies in accordance with, and subject to, any specific policies that have been adopted by the client and communicated to and accepted by the Advisor in writing.

General Principles

In providing the service of voting client proxies, the Advisor is guided by general fiduciary principles, must act prudently, solely in the interest of its clients, and must not subordinate client interests to unrelated objectives. Except as otherwise indicated in these Policies, the Advisor will vote all proxies with respect to investments held in the client accounts it manages. The Advisor will attempt to consider all factors of its vote that could affect the value of the investment. Although in most instances the Advisor will vote proxies consistently across all client accounts, the votes will be based on the best interests of each client. As a result, accounts managed by the Advisor may at times vote differently on the same proposals. Examples of when an account's vote might differ from other accounts managed by the Advisor include, but are not limited to, proxy contests and proposed mergers. In short, the Advisor will vote proxies in the manner that it believes will do the most to maximize shareholder value.

Specific Proxy Matters

Routine Matters

Compensation Matters

Anti-Takeover Proposals

Transaction Related Proposals

Other Matters, Including ESG Proposals

Use of Proxy Advisory Services

The Adviser may retain proxy advisory firms to provide services in connection with voting proxies, including, without limitation, to provide information on shareholder meeting dates and proxy materials, translate proxy materials printed in a foreign language, provide research on proxy proposals and voting recommendations in accordance with the voting policies expressed herein, provide systems to assist with casting the proxy votes, and provide reports and assist with preparation of filings concerning the proxies voted.

Prior to the selection of a proxy advisory firm and periodically thereafter, the Advisor will consider whether the proxy advisory firm has the capacity and competency to adequately analyze proxy issues and the ability to make recommendations based on material accurate information in an impartial manner. Such considerations may include some or all of the following (i) periodic sampling of votes cast through the firm's systems to determine that votes are in accordance with the Advisor's policies and its clients best interests, (ii) onsite visits to the proxy advisory firm's office and/or discussions with the firm to determine whether the firm continues to have the resources (e.g. staffing, personnel, technology, etc.) capacity and competency to carry out its obligations to the Advisor, (iii) a review of the firm's policies and procedures, with a focus on those relating to identifying and addressing conflicts of interest and monitoring that current and accurate information is used in creating recommendations, (iv) requesting that the firm notify the Advisor if there is a change in the firm's material policies and procedures, particularly with respect to conflicts, or material business practices (e.g., entering or exiting new lines of business), and reviewing any such change, and (v) in case of an error made by the firm, discussing the error with the firm and determining whether appropriate corrective and preventative action is being taken. In the event the Advisor discovers an error in the research or voting recommendations provided by the firm, it will take reasonable steps to investigate the error and seek to determine whether the firm is taking reasonable steps to reduce similar errors in the future.

While the Advisor takes into account information from many different sources, including independent proxy advisory services, the decision on how to vote proxies will be made in accordance with these policies.

Monitoring Potential Conflicts of Interest

Corporate management has a strong interest in the outcome of proposals submitted to shareholders. As a consequence, management often seeks to influence large shareholders to vote with their recommendations on particularly controversial matters. In the vast majority of cases, these communications with large shareholders amount to little more than advocacy for management's positions and give the Advisor's staff the opportunity to ask additional questions about the matter being presented. Companies with which the Advisor has direct business relationships could theoretically use these relationships to attempt to unduly influence the manner in which the Advisor votes on matters for its clients. To ensure that such a conflict of interest does not affect proxy votes cast for the Advisor's clients, our proxy voting personnel regularly catalog companies with whom the Advisor has significant business relationships; all discretionary (including case-by-case) voting for these companies will be voted by the client or an appropriate fiduciary responsible for the client (e.g., a committee of the independent directors of a fund or the trustee of a retirement plan).

In addition, to avoid any potential conflict of interest that may arise when one American Century Investments' fund owns shares of another American Century Investments' fund, the Advisor will "echo vote" such shares, if possible. Echo voting means the Advisor will vote the shares in the same proportion as the vote of all of the other holders of the fund's shares. So, for example, if shareholders of a fund cast 80% of their votes in favor of a proposal and 20% against the proposal, any American Century Investments' fund that owns shares of such fund will cast 80% of its shares in favor of the proposal and 20% against. When this is not possible (as in the case of the "NT" funds, where the other American Century Investments' funds are the only shareholders), the shares of the underlying fund (e.g. the "NT" fund) will be voted in the same proportion as the vote of the shareholders of the corresponding American Century Investments' policy portfolio for proposals common to both funds. For example, NT Growth Fund shares will be echo voted in accordance with the votes of the Growth Fund shareholders. In the case where the policy portfolio does not have a common proposal, shares will be voted in consultation with a committee of the independent directors.




The voting policies expressed above are of course subject to modification in certain circumstances and will be reexamined from time to time. With respect to matters that do not fit in the categories stated above, the Advisor will exercise its best judgment as a fiduciary to vote in the manner which will most enhance shareholder value.

Case-by-case determinations will be made by the Advisor's staff, which is overseen by the General Counsel of the Advisor, in consultation with equity managers. Electronic records will be kept of all votes made.